Three and a Half Centuries Later – The Modern Art of Liquid-Column Manometry by C R Tilford.
After three and a half centuries the Torricellian mercury manometer remains most accurate pressure standard. State-of-the-art manometers achieve parts-per-million total uncertainties near atmospheric pressures imprecisions as low 0,01 Pa. The uncertainty is determined primarily by in measurement of height surfaces average density. latter limited generally temperature mercury. techniques used to locate determine their heights not only imprecision accuracy measurement, but can also have significant effect on maintenance stable uniform temperature. This review discusses factors important high-accuracy with particular emphasis surface detection techniques. Specifically discussed are capacitance detection, white-light fringes, optical interferometry, without floats, ultrasonic measurements.
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